It can be quite useful to determine how a voltage appearing across two series resistors “divides” between them.

Consider the circuit shown below:

By Ohm’s Law, the current in the resistors is:

By application of Ohm’s Law again, the voltage across *R*1 is:

*v*1 = *R*1 . *i*

and therefore:

Similarly, the voltage across *R*2 is:

These equations describe how the voltage is divided between the resistors. Because of this, a pair of resistors in series is often called a *voltage divider*.

**Example:**

We want to find the voltage *v *in the circuit below:

Combining the series connection of the 1 ohm and 3 ohm resistors, we obtain the

Now the pair of 4 ohms resistors in parallel can be combined as shown below:

By voltage division:

Returning to the original circuit and applying voltage division again yields:

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